The prehistoric population of Northern Nubia was probably Egyptian but this was displaced in early historic time by a black race, and the thick lips and woolly hair of the typical African are as well marked in the oldest Egyptian paintings as in the latest.
The history of Ethiopia is closely interwoven with that of Egypt.
Location, Extent and Population: Critically speaking Ethiopia may refer only to the Nile valley above the First Cataract, but in ancient as in modern times the term was often used not only to include what is now known as Nubia and the Sudan (Soudan), but all the unknown country farther West and South, and also at times Northern, if not Southern, Abyssinia.While Ethiopia was so indefinitely large, yet the narrow river valley, which from the First to the Fifth Cataract represented the main agricultural resources of the country, was actually a territory smaller than Egypt and, excluding deserts, smaller than Belgium (W. The settled population was also small, since in ancient as in modern times Egypt naturally drew away most of the able-bodied and energetic youth as servants, police and soldiers.This country was known to the Hebrews, and is described in Isaiah 18:1 ; Zephaniah .They carried on some commercial intercourse with it ( Isaiah ).
Ethiopia is spoken of in prophecy ( Psalms ; 87:4 ; Isaiah ; Ezekiel 30:4-9 ; Daniel ; Nahum 3:8-10 ; Habakkuk 3:7 ; Zephaniah ). The country which the Greeks and Romans described as "AEthiopia" and the Hebrews as "Cush" lay to the south of Egypt, and embraced, in its most extended sense, the modern Nubia, Sennaar, Kordofan and northern Abyssinia , and in its more definite sense the kingdom of Meroe.
( Ezekiel ) The Hebrews do not appear to have had much practical acquaintance with Ethiopia itself, though the Ethiopians were well known to them through their intercourse with Egypt. ( Genesis 10:6 ) They were divided into various tribes, of which the Sabeans were the most powerful.