We are concerned mainly with the lower layer of troposphere.
All places in the same area or time zone or time belt, use what is called Standard Time. Atmosphere is 200 miles thick, but nine-tenths of the air composing it is found within 12 miles, and half within 3½ miles of the earth's surface.
Instead of changing the time exactly according to change in degrees at the rate of 4 minutes per degree, certain time zones have been established. The Atmosphere: The air is composed mainly of nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%) with small proportions of carbon dioxide, water vapour and rarer gases like argon and neon.
To overcome the confusion that would otherwise arise, the International Date Line has been established. Westward-bound vessels crossing the Date Line drop a day from the calendar, while those going eastward add a day by giving the same date to two consecutive days. Steps to combat soil erosion include (i) terracing; (ii) contour ploughing; (iii) strip cropping (iv) planting shelter belts of trees; and (v) plugging the gullies by building small dams etc.
Photosphere temperature : 5,770 K Core temperature : 150,000,000 K Absolute visual magnitude : 4.75 Rotation (as seen from the earth at the equator) : 25.38 days Rotation (near the poles) : 33 days The sun consists of 71% of Hydrogen, 26.5% Helium and 2.5% of other elements. The upper part of stratosphere has plenty of ozone which protects us from the fatal effects of Sun's ultraviolet radiation. It includes Thermosphere and Exosphere which marks the outer limits of the earth's atmosphere.
The rays of the Sun take about 8 minutes to reach the earth. Mesosphere is the next layer extending from 50 to 80 Kms above the earth. The Lithosphere: The mass of the Earth is generally divided into three layers, namely, Crust, Mantle and Core. Hammer & Sickle National Flag of Russia© THE RAMAN'S BOOKS 7Highest - Biggest - Longest - Deepest - Largest - Smallest Largest ARCHIPELAGO Indonesia AREA Smallest State in Area (India) Goa Smallest Union Territory Lakshadweep Largest State in Area (India) Madhya Pradesh Largest City in Area (World) London ANIMAL Tallest Animal Fastest Animal at short run Fastest Animal Largest existing Land animal Most Intelligent Animal Most Cunning Animal Largest Sea Animal BELL Largest Bell (World) BIRD Largest Bird Largest Sea-bird Fastest Bird Flightless Bird Smallest Bird Singing Bird BRIDGE Longest Railway Bridge (India) Longest Steel Arch Bridge Ostrich Albatross Swift Swift Humming Bird Nightingale Sone Bridge (Bihar) New River Gorge Bridge, 518.2 m long (West Virginia, USA) The Yangtse River Bridge 6,772 m rail deck and 4,589 road deck (Nanking, China) Huey P.
1GENERAL KNOWLEDGELATEST STUDY MATERIALS WITH KEY POINTSTHE UNIVERSESOLAR SYSTEM - STATISTICSThe solar system consists of the Sun and 9 planets revolving around it in different orbits. Troposphere extends to a distance of about ten kilometres.The statistics of the sun and the planets are given below : SUN Age : About 5 Billion years Distance : 149.8 Million Kms Diameter : 1,38,400 Kms. Stratosphere is a region extending from an altitude of about 11 Km to 50 Km above the earth.