Various Germanic tribes have occupied the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD.Germany's capital and largest metropolis is Berlin.Major urban areas include Ruhr, Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart and Düsseldorf.With about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union.After the United States, it is the second most popular immigration destination in the world.is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe.
In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded: the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic. In the 21st century, Germany is a great power and has the world's fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP, as well as the fifth-largest by PPP.After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic.The establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and a genocide.
During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward.
Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire.