Nevertheless, these incidents have generally been reported and understood in terms of the long-term racial problems involving whites and blacks in the United States.
However, I differentiate the experiences of West Indians and American blacks, and trace how those differences contribute to different understandings of causes and consequences of hate crimes in New York City.
The paper proceeds as follows: First, I trace the historical distinction in the United States between groups defined in terms of ethnicity and in terms of race.
From infants to the elderly, it affects people in all stages of life.
Many more survive violence and suffer physical, mental, and or emotional health problems throughout the rest of their lives.