Various Germanic tribes have occupied the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD.With about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union.After the United States, it is the second most popular immigration destination in the world.Germany's capital and largest metropolis is Berlin.Major urban areas include Ruhr, Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart and Düsseldorf.
Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire.After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic.The establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and a genocide.During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation.
In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded: the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic. In the 21st century, Germany is a great power and has the world's fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP, as well as the fifth-largest by PPP.