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Sexologist John Money introduced the terminological distinction between biological sex and gender as a role in 1955.

Before his work, it was uncommon to use the word gender to refer to anything but grammatical categories.

In the English literature, there is also a trichotomy between biological sex, psychological gender, and social gender role.

This framework first appeared in a feminist paper on transsexualism in 1978. They derive ultimately from a widely attested Proto-Indo-European (PIE) root g It appears in Modern French in the word genre (type, kind, also genre sexuel) and is related to the Greek root gen- (to produce), appearing in gene, genesis, and oxygen.

The modern English word gender comes from the Middle English gender (also gendere, gendir gendyr, gendre), a loanword from Anglo-Norman and Middle French gendre. The first edition of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED1, Volume 4, 1900) notes the original meaning of gender as "kind" had already become obsolete.

The word was still widely attested, however, in the specific sense of grammatical gender (the assignment of nouns to categories such as masculine, feminine and neuter).

However, Money's meaning of the word did not become widespread until the 1970s, when feminist theory embraced the concept of a distinction between biological sex and the social construct of gender.

Today, the distinction is strictly followed in some contexts, especially the social sciences Later, in 2011, the FDA reversed its position and began using sex as the biological classification and gender as "a person's self representation as male or female, or how that person is responded to by social institutions based on the individual's gender presentation." The social sciences have a branch devoted to gender studies.

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