These methods include inference of surface temperature change from vertical temperature profiles in the ground (bore holes) at many sites around the world, rate of glacier retreat at many locations, and studies by several groups of the effect of urban and other local human influences on the global temperature record.
A related Plotter page may be used to graphically display individual columns of the table data, overlaid by an adjustable smoothing to examine the medium- and long-term trends. + GISTEMP Team, 2016: , 48, RG4004, doi:10.1029/2010RG000345.
See the article index for a list of NASA news and features related to the GISTEMP analysis. The basic GISS temperature analysis scheme was defined in the late 1970s by James Hansen when a method of estimating global temperature change was needed for comparison with one-dimensional global climate models.