Nationalism, social reforms and the arts developed under the British Raj in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when the region was a hotbed of the anti-colonial movement in the subcontinent.With rich biodiversity, Bangladesh is home to 700 rivers, most of the world's largest mangrove forest; rainforested and tea-growing highlands; a 600 km (370 mi) coastline with the world's longest beach; and various islands, including a coral reef.Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, ranking alongside South Korea and Monaco.The official Bengali language is the seventh-most spoken language in the world, which Bangladesh shares with the neighboring Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and Assam (Barak Valley).Three of Asia's largest rivers, the Ganges (locally known as the Padma), the Brahmaputra (locally known as the Jamuna) and the Meghna, flow through Bangladesh and form the fertile Bengal delta—the largest delta in the world.Bengal was absorbed into the Muslim world and ruled by sultans for four centuries, including under the Delhi Sultanate and the Bengal Sultanate.This was followed by the administration of the Mughal Empire.
"The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ Gônôprôjatôntri Bangladesh), is a sovereign state in South Asia.
It forms the largest and eastern portion the ethno-linguistic region of Bengal.
The capital Dhaka and the port city of Chittagong are the most prominent urban centers.
The predominant ethnic group are Bengalis, with a politically-dominant Bengali Muslim majority, followed by Bengali Hindus, Chakmas, Bengali Christians, Marmas, Tanchangyas, Bisnupriya Manipuris, Bengali Buddhists, Garos, Santhals, Biharis, Oraons, Tripuris, Mundas, Rakhines, Rohingyas, Ismailis and Bahais.
Islamic Bengal was a melting pot, a regional power and a key player in medieval world trade.
British colonial conquest took place in the late-18th century.